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逻辑链相关的能力

众所周知GMAT逻辑是GMAT verbal部分非常棘手的一科,很多学生从开始备考到最后考试完毕都没有想清楚GMAT逻辑到底想让我们干什么,以及我们需要具备什么样的能力才最终能在考场上面不至于成为炮灰尼?当然需要具备的能力很多,我们今天聊一下其中之一的找逻辑链相关的能力。

 

有些小伙伴可能会想为什么是找相关的能力,不是语言能力,不是逻辑思辨能力,不是找问题解决能力,不是各种题型的解题技巧?当然其它也很重要,我们会在后面一一讲到。最直接的原因是GMAT逻辑题目的初衷是培养我们分析问题解决问题的能力,我们首先需要了解问题是什么吧。既然需要了解问题是什么那就需要我们的正确选项先迈过相关这一坎。

 

我们来看一个例子:

 

结论:万圣节给女生一个浓妆艳抹的机会。

以下哪个选项支持以上结论?

a.其他的一些节日女生不会浓妆艳抹。

b.女生平时不会浓妆艳抹。

c.女生素颜和化妆差距很大。

d.一些女生在万圣节画淡妆。

e.浓妆比素颜更起到吓人的效果。

 

这个题目的结论是“万圣节给女生一个浓妆艳抹”的机会,所以我们需要讨论的是:万圣节有没有导致女生更可能化浓妆。像C里面的女生素颜和化妆差距很大,讨论素颜化妆区别,与结论无关。E说浓妆素颜更起到吓人的效果, 讨论事情与结论讨论事情无关。

 

这个例子非常清晰的告诉我们可以通过判断选项是否与结论相关来排除一些无关因素,减少做题障碍。

 

我们再看一些例子:

 

1. Since at least 1868, paleontologists have been arguing over whether or not birds evolved from dinosaurs. In the late 1960s, a scientist from Yale University named John Ostrom declared there were 22 features in the skeletons of meat-eating dinosaurs that were also seen in birds but not in any other animals. By the year 2000, 85 such characteristics unique to dinosaurs and birds had been discovered. Some very vocal critics continue to oppose the theory, but this skeletal evidence strongly supports the idea that dinosaurs are the direct ancestors of modern birds.

 

Which of the following, if true, would allow the conclusion of the argument to be more properly drawn?

 

 

结论是:

鸟和恐龙有很多相似特征----恐龙是鸟的直接祖先

 

这个结论讨论的是相似特征鸟和恐龙的进化关系

 

我们看一下选项:

A Tetrapod dinosaurs evolved feathers in place of scales because feathers conferred greater protection against the cold.

恐龙在悬崖上面进化出羽毛,因为那里可以帮助它们御寒

A 讨论的是恐龙羽毛之间的关系,与结论中相似特征鸟和恐龙之间的进化关系无关,排除。

 

B The existence of so many uniquely linked characteristics can be explained by convergent evolution, the development of similarities in separate lineages through the operation of similar selective factors on both lines.

B 讨论的是相似特征进化之间的关系,与结论讨论一致,留下。

 

C Several of the supporters of the theory that birds evolved from dinosaurs are paleontologists who are highly regarded in their field.

C 讨论的是支持该理论的科学家是怎么样的,与结论讨论不一致

 

D It is impossible to tell for certain by examining the fossil record whether dinosaurs were warmblooded like birds or cold-blooded like reptiles.

D 讨论的是无法从化石记录中知道恐龙是温血动物还是冷血动物。与结论中讨论内容无关。

 

E The earliest "feathered dinosaur" fossil found has been dated at 129 million years old, while the earliest "true bird" fossil has been dated at 150 million years old.

E 讨论的是最早的和最早的恐龙他们的年代,与结论讨论的不一致。

 

从这个例子我们可以很清楚知道通过判断选项讨论内容与结论讨论内容是否相关,可以很快判断出正确选项。 当然要做到快准狠,必须具备两个条件,一有一定的语言功底,能够读懂题目和选项,二结论找的准确。

 

也许又会有同学会问到,老师这个方法太快太玄妙,我不敢用。其实这个方法是符合最基本的出题策略和原理的,只是有些小伙伴因为找结论找错了,或者自己主动脑补联想受过伤就不敢用。无论如何这个方法一定是大家在考场上面可以上用的。

 

练一练:

In the ruins of the city-state of Assur, in Ancient Assyria, archaeologists found dried goatskin dating back 3800 years. Analysis of the goatskins showed that they had an unusual pH level that was no lower than that of the calcium carbonate mixture produced by grinding cowrie shells, the most common seashells found on the shore of the Tigris river that runs through Assur. Some believe that this is evidence the Assyrians engaged in the practice of "liming" animal skins: soaking them in alkaline solutions made from crushed seashells in order to create parchment that could be traded with nearby civilizations.

 

Which of the following, if true, would, together with the information above, provide the best evidence for the claim that the dried goatskins are evidence that the Assyrians engaged in the practice of "liming" animal skins?

A The calcium carbonate from the cowrie shell is the most common chemical used in modern-day "liming" of parchment and leather.

B Calcium carbonate mixtures of different concentrations can produce a wide range of pH levels in alkaline solutions.

C The goatskins were found in huts that contained equipment known to have been used by Assyrian tradesmen and chemists.

D Apart from the Assur discovery, there is reliable evidence that some ancient civilizations, such as the Babylonians, practiced "liming."

E Archaeologists matched the goatskins to goat skeletons found on the outskirts of Assur on the banks of the Tigris River.

 

 

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